UNEC Respiratory and Cardiovascular Physiology Test Questions

Respiratory and Cardiovascular Physiology (PYS 204) is a second-semester course in the College of Medicine, UNEC.

The test is in an essay question format. Typically, you will be asked two questions for the test. One question each for the two sections of the course.

Below are likely questions in Respiratory and CVS test in UNEC for second year students..

Respiratory Physiology

  1. Outline the non-respiratory functions of the respiratory system.
  • Describe the mechanics of respiration
  • Inspiration
  • Quiet inspiration
  • Force inspiration
  • Expiration
  • Quiet expiration
  • Force expiration

Relate Boyle’s law with inspiration and expiration. Increased intrapulmonary volume and decreased pressure of -1mmHg causes the rush of atmospheric air into the lungs.

2. Write an essay on compliance

  • Definition of compliance
  • Formula for compliance
  • Factors affecting compliance

3. Discuss dead space

  • Definition of dead space
  • Anatomical dead space
  • Physiological dead space

4. Write an essay on lung volume and capacities

  • Introduction: There are four lung volume and capacities.
  • Draw diagram of lung volume and capacities
  • Lung Volume
  • Tidal volume
  • Inspiratory reserve volume
  • Expiratory reserve volume
  • Residual volume
  • Lung Capacities
  • Inspiratory capacity
  • Functional residual capacity
  • Force vital capacity
  • Total lung capacity
  • Factors affecting lung volume and capacities
  • Environmental factors (temperature and altitude)
  • Individual factors (age, sex, body size, posture, lifestyle and race).

5. Write short note on the chemical control of respiration

  • Introduction
  • Peripheral chemoreceptors
  • Central chemoreceptors

6. Write short note on ventilation

  • Definition on ventilation
  • Pulmonary ventilation
  • Alveolar ventilation
  • Normal value and calculation

7. Write an essay on dead space

  • Definition of dead space
  • Types of dead space
  • Anatomical dead space
  • Physiological dead space
  • Normal value of dead space

8. Outline the factors that determine the rate of diffusion of gases dissolved in fluids

  • The solubility of the gas in the fluid
  • The cross-sectional area of the fluid
  • The distance through which the gas must diffuse
  • The molecular weight of the gas
  • The temperature of the fluid

9. Describe the transport of oxygen in the blood and tissues

  • Introduction
  • Dissolved form transport
  • Haemoglobin transport

10. Describe the transport of carbon dioxide in the blood and tissues

  • Introduction
  • Dissolved form transport
  • Bicarbonate form transport
  • Carbamino form transport

11. Write short note on Bohr’s effect and the factors influencing Bohr’s effect

  • Bohr effect was postulated by Christian Bohr in 1904
  • State principle of Bohr’s effect
  • Factors influencing Bohr’s effect include the following;
  • Decrease in partial pressure of oxygen
  • Increase in partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Bohr effect)
  • Increase in hydrogen ion concentration and decrease in pH (acidity)
  • Increased body temperature
  • Excess of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) in RBC. It is also called 2,3-biphosphoglycerate

12. Outline the differences between inspired and alveolar air

  • Alveolar air is partially replaced by the atmospheric air during each breath
  • Oxygen diffuses from the alveolar air into pulmonary capillaries constantly
  • Carbon dioxide diffuses from pulmonary blood into alveolar air constantly
  • Dry atmospheric air is humidified while passing through the respiratory passage before entering the alveoli

13. Describe diffusion of gases through the respiratory membrane

  • Introduction
  • Six layers of the respiratory membrane
  • Factors that affect the rate of diffusion through the respiratory membrane
  • The thickness of the membrane,
  • The surface area of the membrane,
  • The diffusion coefficient of the gas in the substance of the membrane
  • The partial pressure difference of the gas between the two sides of the membrane.
  • Diffusing capacity of the respiratory membrane.

CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY

  1. Write an essay on cardiac circle
  • Isovolumetric relaxation
  • Ventricular filling/relaxation
  • Stages of ventricular filing
  • Isovolumetric contraction
  • Ventricular contraction

Key points for cardiac cycle

  • Atria vs Ventricular pressure
  • Arterial vs Ventricular Pressure
  • AV valve (open or close)
  • Semilunar valve (open or close)

2. Explain the link between cardiac output, heart rate and stroke volume

3. Discuss regulation of vagal tone (Vasomotor center)

4. With the aid of a diagram describe the ECG waves

  • Draw diagram
  • P wave
  • QRS wave
  • T wave
  • P-R interval
  • Q-T interval
  • R-R interval
  • S-T segment

5. Write on cardiac output, measurement and factors that affect cardiac output

  • Define cardiac output
  • Determinants of cardiac output (heart rate and stroke volume)
  • Factors that affect cardiac output
  • Preload
  • Contractility
  • Afterload

6. Write on the nervous control of blood pressure

  • Receptors
  • Afferent neurons (input)
  • Integrating centre
  • Efferent neurons (output)
  • Effector

7. Write short note on heart failure

  • Systolic heart failure
  • Diastolic heart failure
  • Left and right heart failure
  • Acute and chronic heart failure
  • Compensated and decompensated heart failure

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