WAEC Syllabus for Dyeing and Bleaching & Textbooks 2024/2025

The WAEC syllabus for Dyeing and Bleaching is the topic you must study to sit for the examination. It contains the aims and objectives, notes and format for the Dyeing and Bleaching exam.

Studying the Dyeing and Bleaching syllabus is necessary for your exam preparation. It will serve as a guide for you to know the topics to read. There are also notes on concepts you should pay attention to learning.

Exam preparations without using the Dyeing and Bleaching syllabus are like going to the farm without your agricultural tools. You will end up not being productive.

Ensure you begin your exam preparations using the syllabus.

This post contains the Dyeing and Bleaching syllabus and recommended textbooks of the West African Examination Council (WAEC).

WAEC Dyeing and Bleaching

This syllabus is intended to create a platform for an objective assessment of candidates’ understanding of the socio-economic prospects of Dyeing and Bleaching.

Through this, the extent of their skills in exploiting Dyeing and Bleaching for wealth creation, self-sustainability and poverty eradication shall be evaluated.


Candidates will be tested on their

  1. knowledge and practical skill in the functional and productive  manipulation of dyes and chemicals on fabrics;
  2. creative ingenuity in visual representations;
  3. ability to produce finished designed fabric for appreciation and economic patronage;
  4. understanding of the safety measures in executing dyeing and bleaching.

Scheme of Examination

There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2, and 3, all of which should be taken. Papers 1 and 2 shall be a composite paper to be taken in one sitting.

PAPER 1: The paper will consist of forty multiple-choice questions drawn from the entire syllabus.

Candidates will be required to answer all the questions in 45 minutes for 40 marks.         

PAPER 2: The paper will consist of six essay-type questions out of which candidates will be required to answer any four of the questions in 1 hour 40 minutes for 60 marks.

PAPER 3: This paper will evaluate candidates’ skills in tie-dye, batik and printing. The paper shall have three alternatives:

  1. Tie-dye;
  2. Batik (Wax or Starch Resist)
  3. Printing. Candidates shall answer the question(s) of the alternatives only.

The paper shall be rendered on fabric with dye-resist materials and printing inks.

Each alternative shall carry 100 marks.

Candidates shall have 30 minutes for preparation after which the test will commence and last for four hours.

The test will be conducted and assessed on the spot by a visiting Examiner appointed by the West African Examinations Council (WAEC)

The question paper will be made available to candidates at least two weeks before the date of the test.

WAEC Dyeing and Bleaching Syllabus

Introduction to Tie Fye

  1. Meaning of tie-dye
  2. Types of tie-dye designs
  3. Materials and tools for tie-dye

Colour Manipulation and Motif Formation

  1. Definition of  colour
  2. Classes of colours
  3. Formation of motifs for designs
  4. Using motifs to create impressions on the fabric
  5. Creation of patterns e.g repeat, mirror, half-drop, half slide, block etc.

Safety and Precautions

  1. Safety materials to be used when dyeing e.g. nose and mouth masks, rubber gloves, apron, cold water, petroleum jelly e.t.c.
  2. Proper storage of chemicals
  3. Proper handling of electrical appliances
  4. Importance of safety precautions 

Preparation of Dye

  1. Meaning of dye
  2. Types of dyes e.g.(synthetic and natural dyes)-cold-water dye(reactive), warm / hot-water dye (Dylon) etc.
  3. Preparation of dye bath

Dyeing Processes

  1. Dyeing procedures
  2. Plain dyeing
  3. Pattern dyeing e.g tieing techniques, marbling
  4. Finishing (oxidation, washing, starching, ironing and packaging)

Introduction to Batik

  1. Meaning of batik
  2. Types of batik e.g freehand, splashing, cracking, blocking, etc
  3. Materials and tools for batik e.g wax, fabric, tjanting, form, starch, yam, flour, dyes etc


  1. Wax resist method
    • Preparation of fabric, wax and other materials
    • Waxing techniques and precautions
    • Oxidation and de-waxing
    • Finishing.
  2. Start resist method
    • Meaning of starch
    • Materials and tools for starch resist technique
    • Preparation of paste
    • Safety and precautions in starch resist method
    • Different methods of starch resistance e.g. stencilling, freehand drawing, screening and stamping
    • Oxidation and removal of starch
    • Finishing

Fabric Printing

  1. Meaning of printing
  2. Printing techniques e.g relief process (lino), intaglio, silkscreen etc.
  3. Tools, materials and equipment for printing
  4. Motif formation
  5. The production process of fabric printing
  6. Finishing

Tie-Dye and Printing

  1. Introduction to tie-dye printing
    • Techniques used to print on tie-dye e.g. direct printing, discharge printing, resist printing, transfer printing, etc.
    • Materials and tools for tie-dye and printing
    • Finishing
  2. Meaning of bleaching
    • Types of bleaching e.g chlorine bleaching and oxygen bleaching
    • Materials and tools for bleaching e.g fabric, chemicals( choloros, caustic soda, hydrosulphite etc).
    • Application of bleach on fabric.

List of Materials, Tools and Equipment

  1. Alum
  2. Bee wax
  3. Boiling ring / Electric Kettle
  4. Bowls of different sizes
  5. Brown paper or old newspaper
  6. Brushes, sable and bristle
  7. Cardboard
  8. Caustic soda, hydrosulphite, chlorine, chlorous, sodium chloride
  9. Chisel
  10. Cutting knives
  11. Cutting saw/ machine
  12. Drawing pins
  13. Drawing sheet
  14. Dye stuffs
  15. Eraser
  16. Fabric (assorted)
  17. Foam
  18. Frame for stretching fabric and a medium sized screen printing frame
  19. Generator
  20. Hand drier
  21. Pressing iron
  22. Lino  sheets
  23. Lino cutters
  24. Long table for printing
  25. Masking tapes
  26. Metal pot
  27. Plastic
  28. Mixing cups
  29. Needle and thread
  30. Nylon(thick or carpet)
  31. Padded table
  32. Paddle stick and ladle
  33. Palette knife
  34. Pegs
  35. Pencil
  36. Plastic buckets
  37. Poster colour
  38. Raffia/twine
  39. Rubber gloves
  40. Rubber rollers
  41. Rulers
  42. Spoons
  43. Spraying gun, automizer machine
  44. Squeegee
  45. Stapler
  46. Stove
  47. Tjanting
  48. Template(different sizes)
  49. Texfast ink
  50. Wax
  51. Wooden hanger
  52. Thimbles
  53. Opaque ink
  54. Mesh
  55. Seriset and bichromate (blue emotion)
  56. Lacquer
  57. Plain glass
  58. Starch
Share on:

Your go-to education blogger, offering practical strategies, expert advice, and educational resources to help students thrive academically and unlock their full potential.

Leave a Comment