WAEC Syllabus for Welding and Fabrication Engineering Craft 2023/2024

The WAEC syllabus for Welding and Fabrication Engineering Craft is the topic you must study to sit for the examination. It contains the aims and objectives, notes and format for the Welding and Fabrication Engineering Craft exam.

Studying the Welding and Fabrication Engineering Craft subject is necessary for your exam preparation. It will serve as a guide for you to know the topics to read. There are also notes on concepts you should pay attention to learning.

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Ensure you begin your exam preparations using the syllabus.

This post contains the Welding and Fabrication Engineering Craft and recommended textbooks of the West African Examination Council (WAEC).

WAEC Welding and Fabrication Engineering Craft Syllabus



There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3, all of which must be taken.

Papers 1 and 2 will be a composite paper to be taken at one sitting.

Paper 1: will consist of forty multiple-choice objective questions all of which are to be answered in 1 hour for 40 marks.

Paper 2:  will consist of five questions out of which candidates will be required to answer any four in 1½ hours for 60 marks.

Paper 3: will be practical test of 3 hours, 10 minutes duration.  It will consist of one compulsory question for 100 marks.

A list of materials for the test shall be made available to schools not less than two weeks before the paper is taken for material procurement and relevant preparations.


The Council may consider testing candidates’ ability in practical work as prescribed in the syllabus in the event that materials for the actual practical test cannot be acquired.  

For this alternative test there will be one question to be answered in 3 hours for 100 marks.

WAEC Syllabus


1Workshop and standard workshop practices.Introduction to fabrication and welding practice.
Safety precautions in welding and fabrication workshop.
Types and causes of accident in the workshop (fire, explosion, sharp objects, hazardous gases, etc).
Accident prevention measures.
Types and causes of environmental pollution.
Methods of preventing environmental pollution.
Safety facilities and protective wears.

1.3.      Workshop layout (fabrication and welding).
1.4 .     Standard welding codes and symbols.
1.5.       First-Aid administration in the workshop.
1.2.1.   Demonstration of the use of protective wear in welding and fabrication.              

1.5.1.    Demonstration of the use of first aid in the workshop.
2Properties of metals and selection.2.1        Ferrous and non-ferrous metals (steel, aluminum, cast iron, copper and zinc, tin, alloy steel).
2.2.       Properties of metals (ductility, hardness, toughness, malleability, fusion and tenacity, brittleness, elasticity and plasticity).
2.3.      Sheet metal (aluminum, mild steel, brass)             
–   concept of sheet metal            
–    gauges of sheet metal
2.4.    Selection of suitable metals for specific jobs.
2.1.1     Identification of ferrous and non-ferrous metals.
  2.5      Heat treatment of metals (hardening, annealing, nnormalizing, tempering and case-hardening, etc.)2.5.1.   Annealing, Hardening and Normalizing of metals
3Tools and Equipment in Fabrication and Welding.3.1.     Identification of tools and equipment for fabrication and welding.
3.2.     Equipment set-up for gas, arc welding and fabrication.
3.3.     Job holding devices for fabrication and welding.
3.4.     Measuring instruments, marking out and cutting tools.  
3.5.     Identification of parts and accessories for gas and arc welding. 
3.6.     Maintenance procedure for arc and gas (oxy-acetylene) welding equipment.
3.7.     Preparation of acetylene gas from carbide.
3.8.     Types of electrodes and their composition, their application, gauges of electrodes, selection of appropriate electrode for a specific job.
3.9.      Equipment for fault detection and troubleshooting in fabrication and welding.
3.1.1.   Student to set up oxy–acetylene equipment     
3.4.1.   Demonstration of the use of measuring, marking out and cutting tools.
3.5.1.   Demonstration of the preparation of acetylene gas from carbide.
4Operations and Techniques in Welding and Fabrication.4.1.      Types of welding (Gas and Arc welding), explanation of the principles of gas and arc welding and their differences  
  4.2.     Description of a typical fabrication process.
4.3.     Types of joints, joint methods and application in welding and fabrication
4.4.     Classification of marking out techniques in welding and fabrications.
4.5.     Description of the use of templates for fabricated and welded assemblies.
4.6.     Welding techniques and application. 
4.7.     Techniques in fabrication work           
–   Description of folding techniques and its importance in fabrication work.
4.3.1. Demonstration of various job cutting techniques.      
4.6.1.   Students to weld using both leftward and rightward methods.
4.7.1.   Students to work on wire-edge projects.
(a)    Classification of fasteners.
(b)    Rivet and its application
(c)    Bolt and nuts
(d)    Screws
5.1.    Permanent fasteners.
5.2.    Temporary fasteners.
5.3.     Types of rivets.
5.4.      Uses of rivets.
5.5.      Description of bolts and nuts.
5.6.      Uses of bolts and nuts
5.7.      Classes of rivets and screws.
5.4.1.   Students to produce rivets joints.
5.5.1.    Students to produce bolts and nuts.
6Forging Process- Introduction to forging6.1.      Definition of forging
6.2.      Forging tools and equipment            (furnace, swages, fullers,             flatters and tongs).
6.3.    Forging process          
–  upsetting.          
–  drawing down           
–  twisting          
–  bending          
–  forging an eye.
6.3.1.   Students to form an eye.
7Preparation of welding surfaces and environment.7.1.    Preparation of welding surfaces by cleaning with wire brush, emery cloth, files, scrappers and grinding machine.
7.2.    Preparation of edges for welding e.g. single V, double V, fillets.
7.3.    Post surface preparation          
–  cleaning surface with wire brush          
–  oiling surface to protect from corrosion or rusting.
7.4.       Defect in welding surfaces (causes and remedies).
7.5.      Definition of welding environment            
–  awkward, unventilated, flammable material            
–  slipery floor (oil/grease on the floor
7.6.          Surface furnishing for fabrication and welding (painting, metal spraying, galvanizing and oiling).
7.2.1.    Preparation of single V surface for welding.
8Practical Work/Project8.1.    Marking of shapes (triangle,           square and rectangle).
8.2.    Cutting and bending of triangles, squares and rectangles.
8.3.    Soldering of sheet metals
8.4.    Welding of steel using arc welding.
8.5.    Welding of steel using gas welding.
8.6.    Fabrication of ferrous and non-ferrous metals into required shapes. 
8.7     Suggested projects (students to            produce the following):           
–  named plate           
–  trinket box           
–  funnel           
–  kitchen stool           
–  car stopper           
–  metal rake
9Business Entrepreneurship Opportunity9.1.    Definition of          
–  entrepreneurship          
–  employer-employee.
9.2     Enterprises          
–  small scale enterprise          
–  medium scale enterprise          
–  large scale enterprise
9.3.    Factors for setting a workshop (cost, site, weather, material, manpower, market, source of power, transportation.
9.3.1.   Site visitations to existing enterprise (small, medium or large scale enterprise)


1Hammers (various types)2017Bending rollers133Combined set of cutting welding outfits548Bench grinding Machine2
2Try squares2018Bench mounted cone roller134Regulators with flow meters649Electrode Holders10
3Chisels1519Bench shares2 35 Water to carbide generator 150Electrode drying oven1
4Punches1520Power hacksaw151Pillar Drilling Machine2
5Hand gloves3021Vee blocks536Anvil352Smith open forge1
6Straight edges2022Aprons5037Swage block153Vice (bench)20
7Trammel drivers523O2 CYLINDERS338Chipping hammers1054Bench type grinding Machine2
8Left and right snips2024Transformers with rectifiers539Flatters555Double ended buffer and polisher1
9Straight snips1525Hand shield and Head caps10 each40Mole grip556Blow pipes (low and high pressure)2
10Rule, Scriber and dividers20 each26Gas welding goggles1041Sledge Hammers557Files assorted100
11Hand nibbling machine527Double cylinder Trolley542Plain goggles2058Acetylene Cylinder3
12Wire brushes5028Oxygen regulators543G – clamp550Parallel Clamp5
13Pliers-assorted2029Acetylene regulators544First-aid box260Toolmakers clamp5
14Tongs Assorted1530Hoses, Clips and all attachments accessories 1045Magnetic clamp261Mallets5
15Hacksaws and blades6031DC generators with all connections546Self grip pliers562Work bench10
16Guillotine132AC Transformers547Folding bars263Fire Extinguisher4
         64Sand bucket4
         65Cramp Folding Machine20
         66Riveting Pliers5
         67Riveting set2


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