WAEC Syllabus for Crop Husbandry and Horticulture 2022/2023

The WAEC syllabus for Husbandry and Crop Horticulture is the topic you must study to sit for the examination. It contains the aims and objectives, notes and format for the Husbandry and Crop Horticulture exam.

Studying the Crop Husbandry and Horticulture syllabus is necessary for your exam preparation. It will serve as a guide for you to know the topics to read. There are also notes on concepts you should pay attention to learning.

Exam preparations without using the Crop Husbandry and Horticulture syllabus are like going to the farm without your agricultural tools. You will end up not being productive.

Ensure you begin your exam preparations using the syllabus.

This post contains the Crop Husbandry and Horticulture syllabus and recommended textbooks of the West African Examination Council (WAEC).

WAEC Crop Husbandry and Horticulture

The examination syllabus has been structured, based on the teaching syllabus, to assess candidates knowledge and skills in the production, processing, storage, marketing and uses of arable, plantation and horticultural crops. 

It will also assess the knowledge and skills of candidates in landscaping and other vocations in crop husbandry.

Aims of the Syllabus

The syllabus is designed to provide a comprehensive assessment of candidates’ knowledge and skills in relation to:

  1. the factors that affect crop production;
  2. the botany of various arable, plantation and horticultural crops;
  3. the propagation and cultivation of various arable, plantation and horticultural crops;
  4. the effective management of crop-based enterprises;
  5. the processing, preservation, storage, transportation, marketing and use of crops;
  6. the management of basic problems associated with crop cultivation;
  7. landscaping, home gardening and interior decoration;    
  8. the socio-economic importance of crops.

Requirements

  1. Schools offering Crop Husbandry and Horticulture are expected to keep farms and compounds or attach students to established farms where a variety of arable and horticultural crops are grown and maintained.
  2. It is recommended that schools should have laboratories, workshops, farm tools and equipment, and study materials such as specimens, chemicals and seeds.
  3. It is also recommended that candidates keep practical notebooks, farm diaries and weed albums. These should contain records of individual activities, based on laboratory and field observations.

Examination Scheme

There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3 all of which must be taken.  Papers 1 and 2 will be a composite paper to be taken in one sitting.

PAPER 1:  Will consist of fifty multiple-choice objective questions all of which must be answered within 1 hour for 50 marks.

PAPER 2:  Will consist of six essay-type questions.  Candidates will be required to answer four questions within 2 hours for 80 marks.

PAPER 3:  Will be a practical paper for school candidates or an alternative to practical test paper for private candidates. Each version will consist of four questions all of which must be answered within 2 hours for 60 marks.

WAEC Crop Husbandry and Horticulture Syllabus

Cultivation of Field Crops

  1. Factors affecting crop production.
  2. Characteristics and importance of field crops.
  3. Distribution of field crops in West Africa.
  4. Breeding of field crops:
    • Selection of good planting material.
    • Techniques for developing and maintaining improved varieties.
    • Seed production
      and marketing.
  5. Production of cereal crops:
    • Classification, botanical attributes and distribution of cereal crops in West Africa.
    • Land preparation, planting, cultural practices.
    • Harvesting, processing and storage.
    • Uses, value chains and marketing.
  6. Production of leguminous crops:
    • Classification, botanical attributes and distribution of leguminous crops in West Africa.
    • Land preparation, planting and cultural practices.
    • Harvesting, processing and storage.
    • Uses, value chains and marketing.
  7. Production of root and tuber crops:
    • Introduction
    • Climatic and soil requirements.
    • Land preparation, planting and cultural practices.
    • Harvesting, post-harvest handling and uses.
  8. Production of cotton:
    • Introduction
    • Land preparation, sowing and cultural practices
    • Harvesting and processing
  9. Production of sugarcane:
    • Introduction
    • Land preparation, planting and cultural practices.
    • Harvesting
    • Processing and Uses
  10. Cultivation of fruit crops
    • Types, characteristics and geographical distribution of fruit crops in West Africa.
    • Land preparation and nursery practices.
    • Transplanting and field maintenance.
    • Harvesting and post-harvest handling.
    • Marketing
  11. Production of Tree crops:
    • Types, characteristics, classification and importance of tree crops.
    • Geographical distribution, environmental requirements and adaptation
    • Seed dormancy
    • Land preparation and techniques of raising and management of tree crops.
    • Harvesting and post-harvest handling.
    • Marketing
  12. Production of specific tree crops:
    • Classification, botanical attributes and distribution of specific tree crops in West Africa.
    • Land preparation, planting and cultural practices.
    • Harvesting, processing and storage.
    • Uses, value chains and marketing.

Production of Vegetables

  1. Types, characteristics, nutritional and economic importance.
  2. Production systems and cropping patterns of vegetable crops in West Africa.
  3. Environmental requirements
  4. Site selection and land preparation
  5. Nursery and field practices.
  6. Harvesting and post-harvest handling of vegetable crops.
  7. Quality and safety standards in vegetable production.
  8. Quality and safety standards in vegetable marketing.

Production of Specific Vegetable Crops

  1. Classification, types, environmental requirements and land preparation methods.
  2. Nursery and cultural practices.
  3. Harvesting and post-harvest handling.
  4. Quality and safety standards in vegetable production and roles of actors and players.

Raising Ornamental Plants

  1. Types and functions of ornamental plants.
  2. Propagation of ornamental plants.
  3. House plants:
    • Types and uses
    • Selecting house plants for specific uses.
    • Management of house plants Tools, Containers and Management, practices.
  4. Establishment and management of lawn grasses.
  5. Establishment and management of hedges.
  6. Establishment and management of beds and borders.

Landscaping

  1. Meaning and importance of landscaping.
  2. Components and principles of landscape design.

Vocations in Crop Husbandry and Horticulture

  1. Vocations and tasks in Crop Husbandry and Horticulture.
  2. Role of vocations
  3. Establishments of enterprises

Practical Syllabus

  1. Introduction to Crop Production
  2. Nursery Practices
  3. Field Practices
    • Land preparation and Planting
    • Fertilizers
    • Weeds
    • Pests and Diseases
    • Irrigation
  4. Harvesting and Post-harvest Handling
  5. Record keeping
  6. Landscaping and Ornamental Horticulture
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