WAEC Syllabus for Sculpture & Textbooks 2024/2025

The WAEC syllabus for Sculpture is the topic you must study to sit for the examination. It contains the aims and objectives, notes and format for the Sculpture exam.

Studying the Sculpture subject is necessary for your exam preparation. It will serve as a guide for you to know the topics to read. There are also notes on concepts you should pay attention to learning.

Exam preparations without using the Sculpture are like going to the farm without your agricultural tools. You will end up not being productive.

Ensure you begin your exam preparations using the syllabus.

This post contains the Sculpture and recommended textbooks of the West African Examination Council (WAEC).

WAEC Sculpture


Sculpture has been identified as one of the vocational subjects at the Senior High School Level because of its importance in the sustenance and development of the culture and arts of a society.


The objectives of the syllabus are to test for the candidates:

  • knowledge in the history and development of sculpture,
  • ability to explore, identify, select, construct, prepare, use, care for materials and tools,
  • knowledge and experience in healthy studio practices.
  • creative and manipulatory skills in designing and production of various forms of sculpture by employing the traditions and cultures of the society to arrive at original creations,
  • skills in the finishing and packaging of sculptures,
  • capability to appreciate and critique works of sculpture,
  • ability to plan and establish a small-scale industry.


There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3 all of which must be taken.  Papers 1 and 2 will be a composite paper to be taken in one sitting.

PAPER 1:  Will consist of forty multiple-choice objective questions all of which must be answered within 50 minutes for 40 marks.  

PAPER 2:  Will consist of six essay-type questions.  Candidates will be required to answer four questions within 2 hours for 60 marks.

PAPER 3:  Will be two practical projects out of which candidates will execute one within five days, working for six hours each of the days.  The paper will carry 80 marks.

The questions will be sent to the candidates two weeks before the execution period for candidates to study.  

Designing sketches and preparatory notes should also be done within the two weeks prior to the execution of the project.  

These will carry 20 marks.  The total mark for the paper is therefore 100.


Sculpture, as applied in this syllabus, includes the general knowledge of the history and development of the vocation, selection and use of tools and materials, health hazards and safety precautions, production of works, their finishing and packaging techniques and marketing strategies of the products.

Candidates will be expected to respond adequately to questions drawn from all aspects of sculpture in their objective, essay and practical forms. Questions will be drawn from the following areas:

(i)     Sculpture as a Vocation:

Definition of sculpture, history and rationale for studying sculpture, career opportunies, the sculpture industry, methods of making sculpture  i.e. carving, modelling, casting, construction and assemblage, etc.

(ii)     Exploration of materials, tools and equipment:

(a) Carving  –  identification and uses of tools, e.g gouges, mallets, chisels, saws, adze, etc. Methods of using various tools; care of tools to prevent rust, damage and promote longevity, (clean and oil metal parts). Keep tools in tool box.

Equipment: table, bench vices, clamps, bench-screws, power tools, sprayers, grinders, drills, chain saw,  etc. Care and maintenance: clean and oil regularly.  

(b)      Modelling  –  identification and uses of modelling tools, eg. spatula, calipers,frog (cutting wire), throne. Methods of modelling: pinching, slabbing, coiling and hollowing. Care and maintenance: care to prevent damage, clean, wash and dry.  

           Equipment: modelling stand, modelling table, turn table.    

  • Casting – identification and uses of casting tools, e.g.spatula, kidney, lost wax, sand casting, cold casting, plaster, cement, wax and slip casting, paper, etc.Equipment for casting:  crucibles, tongs, safety equipment, gloves, goggles, masks, etc.

(d)       Construction and assemblage – identification and uses  of tools, eg. hacksaw,

wires, hammers, saw, chisels, pincers, rasps files etc.; methods of  construction and assemblage, eg. riveting, welding, tying, nailing, soldering, sewing, gluing etc.

           Equipment:  soldering machine, arc-welding machine, goggles, etc.

(e)       Safety measures and precaution – Carving: wearing protective covering i.e. glasses,

respiratory aid, earplugs, boots, etc, carve away from the body.

Modelling: nose guard for working with dry clay, POP, cement, etc, boots, overall clothing. Casting: protective clothing for the body and face, boots, glass, gloves. Construction and Assemblage: protection from naked fire and electric wires, working on dry areas, wearing boots, avoid spillage, inhaling gases and dusty materials.

(f)   Sources of tools and equipment – Tools: blacksmith shop,   carpentry, hardware shops (eg. Sambraco  Enterprise, (Accra).

(iii)    Material –  carving: ivory from elephants, whitehog etc, stone, wood from the forest, sawmills, timber market, from the farms; modelling – clay from river banks, marshy areas, valleys, road construction sites, dug wells, environment and hardware shops, others: environment and shops e.g. POP, cement and paper.

Maintenance – keep wet clay in bins or polythene, cement and POP in dry places, wax must be stored in a cool place, iron rods must  be kept from moist condition, wood must be kept under shed or indoors.

(iv) Preliminary Design – Meaning and importance of preliminary design: serves as a guide or gives an idea of the end product and also prevents waste of material and saves time. Idea development: sketching and drawing, planning and organization of ideas (manual and computer-aided design), preparation of models for reference.

(v)     Method of Production – Production Process – Direct/Indirect

Method of carving (relief and in the round), engraving, whittling, chipping chiselling, blocking, blasting, etc. Modelling: pinching, coiling, hollowing, scooping, slabbing.

Casting: moulding, lost wax casting, cold casting, waste mould, casting piece mould, casting, sand casting, repouse layering. Construction and  Assemblage: welding, soldering, riveting hammering, joining, pressing, sewing, knotting, repouse filigree (Quilling), etc.

(vi)    Lettering

Types of lettering: e.g. block, gothic, freestyle, italics, Roman, etc Method of execution: manual and computer – stenciling, carving, embossing, moulding, reflexive, scorching, etching casting, forging, modelling casting. Application of lettering/uses -plaques, memorials, tombstone, ornamental inscription, epitaphs, medals, shield, label.

Materials for lettering – paper, leather, stone, wood, POP, rubber plastic clay, etc. Tools for lettering – chisels, lino cutters, gouges, spatula, knives, hammer, mallets, scooping  tool, computer software, pencils, lettering pens, soldering rod, etc.

(vii) Decoration and Finishing

Types of Decoration – eg. incision, engraving, scorching, painting, varnishing, burnishing, embossing, stamping, texturing, smoking, sand blasting, inlaying etc. Methods of decoration, e.g. cutting into surface with tools, pressing into surface, stamping on surface etc.

Types of Finishing – e.g. polishing, painting,, varnishing, waxing, smoothing, sanding, texturing, etc. Importance of Decoration and Finishing – eg. adds value, preservation, protection, durability, easy to identify, socio-economic importance, high-income generation, generation of foreign exchange, boost up exportation, promotes tourism, aesthetics, etc.  Materials – eg. brasso, paint, wax, cowries, bones, raffia, beads, straw, wood, etc. Tools – eg. gouges, knives, sprayers, brushes, pincers, files, abrasive papers, etc.

(viii) Establishment of Small-scale Industry

Factors to be considered – eg. types of raw materials, labour, transport and communication, location of market, siting of industry/factory, insurance, entrepreneurship, utility services, branding, quality control, capital, etc. Socio-economic importance e.g. income generation, promotion of tourism, foreign exchange earnings, high recognition of sculpture, promotion of art and appreciation, etc.

Shortfalls in finishing – eg. uneven/irregular surface textures, disproportionate figures, cracks and dents on works, unstable/imbalanced works, smearing/messy, etc.

Ethics of Quality Control – eg. use of quality materials, appropriate subject, avoidance of indecent themes, (eg. vulgarism, pornography, derogatory and insulting signs and language), quality finishing, environmental-friendly material, maintenance of clean environment. Ideal studio.

Packaging and Handling – eg. types of packaging: primary, secondary and tertiary. Tools and materials for packaging – eg.

Tools; knife, hammer, needle, saw, pliers, drills, staplers, scissors, etc.Materials: plywood, plastic bags, fabrics, paper, glue, cardboard, foam, sawdust, sand, wood shavings, styrofoam, adhesive masking tape, cellotape, etc.

Techniques of Packaging – eg. boring, wrapping, nailing, glueing, tying, boxing, etc. Importance of Packaging and

Handling – eg. prevention of damage, shocks, hurt and damp conditions, facilitate easy and safe handling, add value to item, identification, etc.

(ix)     Costing, Pricing and Marketing 

Marketing of art products includes costing and pricing as well. Basic Marketing Strategies – eg. advertising by posters, handbills, television, radio, word of mouth, exhibitions, bazaars, and fairs. Effective decoration and finishing, and attractive packaging transportation, are also forms of marketing.

Types of Exhibition – eg. general, specialized.

Planning of Exhibitions – factors to be considered eg. type of exhibition, indoor and outdoor, what to exhibit, theme, cost involved in the exhibition, publicity, expected number of guests, duration/time, mounting of exhibitions, general layout for space arrangements, security, visitor’s book, sales, opening and closing, etc.

Mounting Exhibits – factors to be considered eg. colour scheme and balance, size, weight and height of exhibits, effect of light and ventilation of room, creation of free movement for viewing exhibits, decorate room with flowers, ribbons etc., creation of centre of attraction, eg. modelling, video shows, invitations, adverts, press release, brochures and catalogues, sales list, etc.

Importance of Exhibition – eg. it offers avenue for sales of product, serves as an advertisement for products, expresses new technology to the society, promotes the artist, education, awareness creation, edifying, etc.

(x)    Managing Sculpture Enterprise

Knowledge on management is necessary. Functions of a manager – Management process involves: planning, organization, controlling, etc. additional skills for management include

supervision, budgeting, bookkeeping and computer skills. Attributes of a Manager – e.g. perseverance, commitment, temperament, courage to take risks.

Controlling Business Risk – Types of risk: direct and indirect – eg. Direct: theft, fire, misuse/misappropriation of capital and profit. Indirect Risk: lack of sales due to faulty and low-quality products or wrong business location, currency inflation problem, the introduction of new taxes, change of labour laws, etc.

Measures of Control – e.g. theft (regular check of stocks and finished products), hire an accountant/bookkeeper to check the business account every month. Increase vigilance and security to minimize theft, fires (eg. use good quality electrical appliances, make good quality electrical connections to prevent fire outbreak, make regular check on fire extinguishers)

(xi)   Appreciation and Criticism in Sculpture 

The process of appreciation and evaluation in sculpture; terms in appreciating 3-dimentional sculptures – e.g. content, forms, subject matter, symbolism, materials and techniques, artist and style. Critiquing Works of art.

(xii)    Portfolio of Works

 Method of Compiling works; eg. photographs arranged and labelled in album or slide holder in chronological/stylistic thematic order, pictures of work stored electronically on CD, video tape, computer hard disk. Note: photographs, drawings and sketches should be mounted on cardboards and labelled, etc.

Uses of Portfolio – e.g. reference and study, exhibition of works, self evaluation.

Importance of Portfolio – e.g. keep record of works, track development of skills, for inspiration, reveals artists weakness, develop creative ability as well as quality control, help artist to be focused, develop for further studies, self esteem and confidence.

(xiii) Professional practices

  • Developing a Business plan
  • Artist’s Statement
  • Definition and Importance
  • Business Plan
  • Definition, Importance and Preparation (steps involved)
  • Business Brochure and Card
  • Definition and Importance

(xiv) Museum and Gallery Studies

–    Definition, history and development of the museum.

–    Functions and socio-economic importance of the museum.

–    The administrative structure of the museum.

–    Authenticity and neutrality of the museum.

–    Examples of museums and their activities.

deal Studio – eg. indoor areas, outdoor space, facilities  needed: eg. water, adequate lighting, good ventilation, fire extinguishers, office, washroom, various section for various types of work (eg. carving, casting, welding, modelling), storage area for  eg. tools and materials, raw materials, for finished works etc.

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