WAEC Syllabus for Integrated Science & Textbooks 2024/2025

The WAEC syllabus for Integrated Science is the topic you must study to sit for the examination. It contains the aims and objectives, notes and format for the Integrated Science exam.

Studying an Integrated Science subject is necessary for your exam preparation. It will serve as a guide for you to know the topics to read. There are also notes on concepts you should pay attention to learning.

Exam preparations without using the Integrated Science are like going to the farm without your agricultural tools. You will end up not being productive.

Ensure you begin your exam preparations using the syllabus.

This post contains the Integrated Science and recommended textbooks of the West African Examination Council (WAEC).

WAEC Integrated Science

This syllabus evolved from the teaching syllabus for the Senior High School Integrated Science issued by the Ghana Education Service in September 2010.

Integrated Science seeks to equip the individual with the integrated body of scientific knowledge and raise the level of scientific literacy of the individuals with comprehensive scientific skills that enable them to function in the present technological era.

Education in science also provides an opportunity for the development of positive attitudes and values.

Aims and Objectives

This syllabus seeks to among other things, enable students to:

  1. acquire the skill to solve basic problems within their immediate environment through analysis and experimentation;
  2. keep a proper balance of the diversity of the living and non-living things based on their interconnectedness and repeated patterns of change;
  3. adopt sustainable habits for managing the natural environment for humankind and    society;
  4. use appliances and gadgets effectively with a clear understanding of their basic operations and underlying principles.
  5. explore, conserve and optimise the use of energy as an important resource for the living world;
  6. adopt a scientific way of life-based on pragmatic observation and investigation of  phenomena;
  7. Search for solutions to problems of life recognizing the interaction of science,  technology and other disciplines.


It is presumed that candidates taking the examination must have:

  1. Carried out activities relating to the rearing of at least one of the following groups of animals:
    • chickens/ducks/turkeys
    • goats/sheep/cattle
    • guinea pigs, rabbits
  2. paid visits to well-established farms, and institutions related  to agriculture, research or manufacturing to observe scientific work and application of science;
  3. kept practical notebooks on records of individual laboratory and field activities performed.

Scheme of Examination

There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3 all of which must be taken.  Papers 1 and 2 will be composite paper to be taken in one sitting.

PAPER 1: Will consist of fifty multiple-choice objective questions all of which must be answered within 1 hour for 50 marks.  

PAPER 2:  Will consist of six essay-type questions. Candidates will be required to answer four questions within 1 hour 30 minutes for 20 marks each.

PAPER 3: Will consist of four questions on a test of practical work.  Candidates will be required to answer all the questions within 2 hours for 60 marks.

WAEC Integrated Science Syllabus

 Questions will be asked on the topics set out in the column headed “CONTENTS”. The “NOTES” are intended to indicate the scope of the questions but they are not to be an exhaustive list of limitations and illustrations.

NOTE: The S.I units will be used for all calculations. However, multiples or sub-multiples of the units may also be used.

Diversity of Mater

  1. Introduction to Integrated Science
    • Concept of Integrated Science Science       
    • The scientific Method
    • Safety precautions in the laboratory
  2. Measurement  
    • Basic quantities and derived quantities and their units.  
    • Measuring instruments   
    • Measurement of density and relative    density
  3. Diversity of living and non-living things
    • Characteristics of living things
    • Classification schemes of living and non-living things.
  4. Matter
    • Particulate nature of matter
    • Elements, compound and  mixtures
    • Ionic and covalent  compounds
    • Atomic number, mass number, isotopes and  relative atomic  mass of given elements
    • Mole, molar  mass  and formula mass
    • Preparation of solutions
  5. Cells
    • Plant and animal cells
    • Types of plant and  animal cells (Specialised cells)
  6. Rocks
    • Types, formation and characteristics of rocks.
    • Weathering of rocks
  7. Acids, bases, and salts
    • Simple definition of acids, bases, salts
    • Physical and chemical properties of acids, bases and salts
    • Examples of chemical substances classified as acids, bases or salts
    • Methods of preparation of salts
    • Acid-base indicators  
    • Determination of pH of a given solutions.
  8. Soil conservation
    • Principles of soil and water conservation
    • Classification of soil nutrients
    • Functions and   deficiency symptoms of nutrients
    • Maintenance of soil fertility
    • Organic and inorganic fertilizers
    • Depletion of  soil resources
  9. Water
    • Physical and chemical properties of water
    • Hardness and softness of water.
    • Treatment of water for public consumption
  10. Metals and non-metals
    • Classification of materials
    • Uses of metals, semi-metals and non-metals
    • Alloys
  11. Exploitation of minerals
  12. Rusting
    • Process of rusting
    • Prevention of rusting     
  13. Organic and inorganic compounds
    • Classification of chemicals as organic and inorganic
    • Neutralization and esterterification
    • Petrochemicals


  1. Air movement
    • Land and sea breeze
    • Types of  air masses and their movement
    • Effect of moving air masses
  2. Nitrogen cycle
    • Importance   
  3. Hydrological cycle
    • Distribution of earth’s water
    • Hydrological cycle
    • Sources of water contamination
    • Effects of  water contamination
    • Water conservation methods
  4. Life cycles of pests and parasites
    • Types of pests and parasites
    • Life cycles of some pests and parasites of human, plants and farm animals
  5. Crop production      
    • General principles of crop production
    • Production of crops
  6. General principles of  farm animal production:
    • Main activities involved in farm animal production
    • Ruminant production
    • Production of non-ruminant


  1. Skeletal system
    • The mammalian skeleton
  2. Reproduction and growth  in plants
    • Structure of flowers
    • Pollination and fertilization
    • Fruits
    • Seeds
    • Seeds and fruits dispersal
    • Seed germination
    • Vegetative (Asexual) reproduction in plants
  3. Respiratory system
    • Aerobic and  anaerobic respiration
    • Structure and functions of  the respiratory system in mammals
    • Inhalation and exhalation
    • Problems and  disorders of the respiratory system
    • Exchange of respiratory gases in plants.
  4. Food and nutrition
    • Classes of food and food substances
    • Malnutrition
    • Food fortification and enrichment
    • Health benefits of water
  5. Dentition, feeding and digestion in mammals
    • Structure of different types of teeth in relation to their functions
    • Care of teeth in humans
    • Digestive system of human
  6. Transport: Diffusion, osmosis and plasmolysis.
  7. Excretory system
    • Excretory organs
    • Disorders of urinary systems in humans
  8. Reproductive system and growth in mammals
    • Mammalia reproductive system
    • Male and Female Circumcision
    • Fertilization, development of the zygote and birth in humans.
    • The process of birth and care for the young
    • Problems associated with reproduction in humans
    • Sexually transmitted infections (STI’s)
    • Phases of growth and development  
  9. The circulatory system
    • The structure and functions of  the circulatory system of humans
    • Composition and functions of blood
    • Disorders associated with the blood and the blood circulatory system
  10. Nervous system   
    • Structure and the function of the nervous system
    • Causes and effects of damage to the central  nervous  system
    • Voluntary and involuntary actions
    • Endocrine system and  its  functions


  1. Forms of energy  and energy transformation
    • Conservation of energy and efficiency of energy conversion
  2. Solar energy
    • Uses of solar energy
    • Application of solar energy
  3. Photosynthesis
    • The process of photosynthesis
    • Conversion of light energy to chemical energy
  4. Electronics
    • Claasification of solid materials into conductors, semiconductors and insulators
    • Behaviour of discrete electronic components
    • Transistors and their uses
    • Amplifer
  5. Electrical energy
    • Nature and source of static and current electricity
    • Electric circuits
    • Resistance(R), current (I), potential difference (V), and power (P).
    • Electric power generation
    • Power transmission
  6. Sound energy
    • Sources of sound   
    • Musical notes and noise
    • The human ear
  7. Light energy
    • Reflection and refraction of light
    • The mammalian eye
    • Dispersion of  light
    • Primary and secondary colours
    • Electromagnetic spectrum
  8. Heat energy    
    • Nature and  sources of heat energy
    • Modes of heat  transfer    
    • Temperature
    • Thermal expansion
    • Change of state of matter
  9. Nuclear energy
    •  Radioactivity
    • Radioisotopes
    • Uses of nuclear energy
    • Protection from the effects of radioactivity
    • Nuclear waste disposal

Interactions of Matter

  1. Ecosystem
    • Basic ecological terms
    • Types of ecosystems and their components   
    • Food chain and  food web
  2. Atmosphere and climate change
    • Regions of atmosphere
    • Human activities and  their effects on the atmosphere
    • Atmospheric pollutants
    • Green house effect   
    • Ozone layer      
    • Acid rain
  3. Infection and diseases
    • Causes of Diseases
    • Common diseases
  4. Magnetism
    • Magnetic and non-magnetic materials
    • Magnetic field
    • Magnetization and demagnetization
  5. Force, motion, and  pressure
    • Force
    • Archimedes Principle and law of flotation
    • Distance, displacement, speed, velocity, momentum, acceleration
    • Stability of objects
    • Pressure
  6. Safety in the community
    • Safe use of appliances in the home
    • First aid methods
    • Hazardous substances
    • Common hazards in the community
    • Roles of health service organizations: (WHO, FAO, UNICEF, Foods and Drugs Board Ghana Health Service, Red Cross, Red Crescent, EPA, Ghana Standards Board, UNPFA, Blue Cross)
  7. Variation and  inheritance
    • Chromosomes and genes
    • Variation
    • Sex determination and sex-linked characters
    • Blood groups and Rhesus factor
    • Sickle cell gene and Sickle cell anaemia
  8. Work and machines
    • Work, energy and power
    • Simple machines       
    • Friction
  9. Endogenous technology
    • Small scale industries
  10. Biotechnology
    • Genetic engineering
    • Tissue culture
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