WAEC Syllabus for Edo & Recommended Textbooks 2022/2023

The WAEC syllabus for Edo is the topic you must study to sit for the examination. It contains the aims and objectives, notes and format for the Edo exam.

Studying the Edo syllabus is necessary for your exam preparation. It will serve as a guide for you to know the topics to read. There are also notes on concepts you should pay attention to learning.

Exam preparations without using the Edo syllabus are like going to the farm without your agricultural tools. You will end up not being productive.

Ensure you begin your exam preparations using the syllabus.

This post contains the Edo syllabus and recommended textbooks of the West African Examination Council (WAEC).

WAEC Edo Syllabus

This examination syllabus is drawn entirely from the senior secondary school curriculum for Edo which was developed by NERDC in 2006.


It is designed to:

  • enable candidates speak, read and write competently in Edo to communicate effectively with other speakers of the language;
  • familiarize candidates with the sound system, grammatical structures and other features of Edo Language;
  • acquaint candidates with the necessary tools needed for a thorough appreciation of Edo Speech Usage, Literature and Culture (customs and institutions).


The examination will consist of two papers, Papers 1 and 2.  It will test all aspects of Edo Language: comprehension, composition, sound system, grammar and translation. It will also test selected texts of oral and written literature as well as Basic Principles of Literary Appreciation, Customs and Institutions. The rubrics shall be written in Edo.

PAPER 1: This will be 60 multiple-choice items covering Language, Literature and Culture aspects of the syllabus. Candidates will be required to answer  all the questions in 1 hour for 60 marks.

The questions will be distributed as follows:

Section A: Language

                        Comprehension (2 short passages)                 –           10 items

                        Composition                                                    –             4 items

                        Sound System                                                 –             6 items

                        Grammar                                                         –             6 items

                        Translation                                                      –             4 items

  • 30 items

Section B: Literature

                        Basic Principles of Literary Appreciation      –           4 items

                        Oral Literature            –           Prose   –  3

                                                            –           Poetry  –  3       –           9 items

                                                            –           Drama –  3

                        Written Literature       –           Prose   –  3

                                                            –           Poetry  –  3       –           9 items

                                                            –           Drama –  3

                                                                                                            22 items

Section C: Culture

                        Customs                                                          –           4 items

                        Institutions                                                      –           4 items

                                                                                                            8 items

                                    Total    =          (30 + 22 + 8)   =          60 items


The content for Paper 1 shall be the same as for Paper 2.

In Section B, all questions other than those on Basic Principles of Literary Appreciation will be on the set books for Paper

PAPER 2:      Essay-Type:     Language, Literature & Culture         Time:   2 hours

Candidates will be required to answer six questions in all: three questions from Section A; two questions from Section B; and one question from Section C. They will also be required to answer all the questions in Edo using the official Edo orthography and metalanguage. The paper shall carry 100 marks.


Section A:      Language


Candidates are advised to write 300 words and spend not more than 45 minutes on this section. The topic chosen will include any of the following essay type:

  • Narrative
  • Descriptive
  • Argumentative
  • Expository
  • Dialogue
  • Debate
  • Letter writing

Sound System

Candidates will be required to answer one question from the two that will be set.


  • Vowels, Consonants and Syllabic nasal
  • their production in terms of place and manner
  • their basic phonetic and phonemic classification
  • Syllable structure
  • Sound processes, e.g. vowel harmony



  • Sound system aspect of the orthography
  • Tones and tone notation


Candidates will be required to answer 1 question from the 2 questions set.


  • Word structure and word formation
  • Numerals: basic and derived
  • Word classes: nouns, verbs, adverbs, pronouns, adjectives, etc.
  • Grammatical categories: subject, object, complement, predicate, number, person, tense, aspect, mood, etc.
  • Phrases and clauses
  • The structure and type of sentences.

Section B:       Literature

This Section consists of Oral Literature and Written Literature.

Oral Literature – Prose, Poetry, Drama

In Oral Literature, there will be three set books covering the different genres. One question will be set from each set book, making three questions in all. Candidates will be required to answer any one of the questions.

Written Literature – Prose, Poetry, Drama

In Written Literature, there will be 3 set books covering the different genres. One question will be set on each set book making a total of three questions.  Candidates will be required to answer any one of the questions.

Section C:      Culture

This Section will consist of topics on customs and institutions. 2 questions will be set and candidates will be required to answer 1.

Topics to be examined will include:


  • make-up and adornments
  • in-door and out-door games
  • pregnancy and its care
  • names/naming ceremonies
  • home training: greetings, respect for superiors, cleanliness, tolerance, integrity, hard work, etc.
  • Edo foods
  • non-verbal communication
  • funerals: traditional and modern methods
  • inheritance: traditional and modern methods.


  • traditional occupations
  • marriage
  • politics: family structure, age grades, chieftaincy, Obaship, etc.
  • child care
  • ancestors
  • Edo beliefs about Osalobua/Osanobua (God), deities/divinities, other invisible forces, etc.
  • modern religions: Islam, Christianity, etc.
  • Economy: adverts, money lending, cooperative efforts, etc.


Paper 1                                                –             60 marks (30%)

Paper 2                                                –           100 marks (70%)

                                                                        160 marks (100%)

Maximum Marks Obtainable – 160 marks (to be scaled down to 100%)

NB:     To enhance the teaching of this language, it is recommended that schools provide audio-visual materials such as television sets, radios, tape-recorders and tapes, cameras, charts and artefacts.

AUTHOR                                           TITLE                                                PUBLISHER           


Osaren Omoregie                            Iden Nokpokhuo                                                                                                                              (A novel on Queen Iden)


Obazee Gabriel et al.                      Asikoko Ekharha Oghe Edo           National Council of

Arts & Culture, Abuja

Selected poems:

  1. Osanobua                 –           Emmanuel Orobosa Oronsaye                  p. 7
  2. Ose Dan                    –           Abel Igbinosa                                               p. 15
  3. Eghian                       –           Violet O. Omoregie                                      p. 18
  4. Itohan                         –           Osemwegie Osayomorre                            p. 32
  5. Igho                            –           H. I. Ojo                                                          p. 41
  6. Edo ne evbo mwen –           Eunice O. Orhuozee                                   p. 49
  7. Uwu                            –           Lawrence Osas Osakaue                           p. 30
  8. Gia doloyi                  –           Apostle P. O. Osakaue                               p. 70
  9. Edo ne evbo Ahirre –           Gabriel O. Obazee                                       p. 75
  10. Alaghodaro               –           Uyilawa Usuanlele                                      p. 68
  11. Ewaen                       –           Felix I. Omoregie                                          p. 26
  12. Ukhu                          –           Emmanuel Orobosa Oronsaye                  p. 14


Ikponmwosa Osemwegie               Eseikho                                             Language Press


AUTHOR                                           TITLE                                                PUBLISHER           


Imasuen, E. O. (DR)                        Edo course Bk 4 – 6                        Aisien Publishers

Omozuwa, Victor Edosa                 Edo phonetics and phonology       Ambik Press




Osemwegie, Osayomwanbo E.     Izelogha                                             Osunero Publishers


Ikponmwosa, Osemwegie              Oro (pages 1 – 49)                          Pristine Publications


Osemwegie, Osayomwanbo E.     Me Okpao Ghare                             Osunero Publishers



Emovon & Osemwegie                   Okha Edo (pp 1 – 5; 23 – 45;         Nelson Publishers                                                               & 81 – 85)


Obazee Gabriel et al.                      Asikoko Ekharha Oghe Edo           National Council of

(pp 1 – 37)                                         Arts & Culture, Abuja


Ikponmwosa Osemwegie               Eseikho                                             Language Press


Imasuen, E. O. (DR)                        Edo course Bk 4 – 6                        Aisien Publishers

Erhahon Ivie                                     Edo Proverbs and Figure of           UNIBEN Press                                                                      Speech


Eghareuba, J. U.                              A short History of Bini                     University Press

Emwinma, Ogie                                Imaguero                                           c/o Aisien Publishers

Ahiatuoghiomwan, Enabulele       Ebe Iruemwi Edo Nogieha             Emnasco Production                                                           (pp 30 – 40)

Agheyisi, (Prof)                                 An Edo/English Dictionary             Ethiope Publishers

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