WAEC Syllabus for Yoruba & Recommended Textbooks 2023/2024

The WAEC syllabus for Yoruba is the topic you must study to sit for the examination. It contains the aims and objectives, notes and format for the Yoruba exam.

Studying the Yoruba subject is necessary for your exam preparation. It will serve as a guide for you to know the topics to read. There are also notes on concepts you should pay attention to learning.

Exam preparations without using the Yoruba syllabus are like going to the farm without your agricultural tools. You will end up not being productive.

Ensure you begin your exam preparations using the syllabus.

This post contains the Yoruba and recommended textbooks of the West African Examination Council (WAEC).

WAEC Yoruba Syllabus



This examination syllabus is based entirely on the Yoruba curriculum developed by NERDC in 2007.


The syllabus is designed to:

  • enable candidates speak, read and write competently in Yoruba and communicate effectively with other speakers of the language;
  • familiarize candidates with the sound system, grammatical structures and other features of Yoruba Language;
  • acquaint candidates with the necessary tools needed for a thorough appreciation of Yoruba speech usage, literature and ulture (customs and institutions).


The examination will consist of two papers, Papers 1 and 2. It will test the following aspects of Yoruba Language: comprehension, composition, sound system, grammar and translation.

It will also test selected texts of oral and written literature as well as Basic Principles of Literary Appreciation, Customs and Institutions. The rubrics shall be written in Yoruba.

PAPER 1 shall contain 60 multiple-choice objective questions on Language, Literature and Culture. The paper shall have three sections, Section A, B and C.

Candidates will be required to answer all the questions in 1 hour for 60 marks. The questions shall be distributed as follows:


  • Comprehension (2 short passages) – 10 items
  • Composition –   4 items
  • Sound System –   6 items
  • Grammar –   6 items
  • Translation –   4 items


Basic Principles of Literary Appreciation – 4 items

Oral Literature

  • Prose –  3
  • Poetry –  3 – 9 items
  • Drama –  3

Written Literature –

  • Prose –  3
  • Poetry –  3 – 9 items
  • Drama –  3

Section C: CULTURE

Customs – 4 items

Institutions – 4 items

8 items

Total = (30 + 22 + 8) = 60 items


The content for Paper 1 shall be the same as for Paper 2

In Section B, all questions other than those on Basic Principles of Literary Appreciation will be on the set books for Paper 2.

PAPER 2: Shall be essay type questions on language, literature and culture. It will also have three sections, Sections A, B and C, have 2 hour duration and carry 100 marks.

Candidates will be required to answer six questions in all: three questions from Section A; two questions from Section B and one question from Section C. They will also be required to answer all the questions in Yoruba using the official Yoruba orthography and metalanguage.




Candidates are advised to write 300 words and spend not more than 45 minutes on this section. The essay will be any of the following types:

  • Narrative
  • Descriptive
  • Argumentative
  • Expository
  • Dialogue
  • Debate
  • Letter writing

Sound System

Candidates will be required to answer one question from the two to be set.

Areas to cover include:

  • Vowels, Consonants and Syllabic nasal
  • their production in terms of place and manner
  • their basic phonetic and phonemic classification
  • Syllable structure
  • Sound processes, e.g. vowel harmony



  • Sound system aspect of the orthography
  • Tones and tone notation


Candidates will be required to answer one question from the two questions to be made available.

Areas to cover are:

  1. Word structure and word formation
  2. Numerals: basic and derived
  3. Word classes: nouns, verbs, adverbs, pronouns, adjectives, etc
  4. Grammatical categories: subject, object, complement, predicate, number, person,         tense, aspect, mood, etc.
  5. Phrases and clauses
  6. The structure and type of sentences.

SECTION B: Literature

This section is made up of Oral Literature and Written Literature.

Oral Literature – Prose, Poetry, Drama

In Oral Literature, there will be 3 set books covering the different genres. 1 question will be set from each set book and candidates will be required to answer any 1 of the 3 questions.

Written Literature – Prose, Poetry, Drama

In Written Literature, there will be three set books covering the different genres. One question will be set from each set book and candidates will be required to answer any one of the three questions.

SECTION C: Culture

This section will consist of questions on customs and institutions. Two questions will be set and candidates will be required to answer any one of them.

Areas to cover will include:


  • Make-up and adornments
  • In-door and out-door games
  • Pregnancy and its care
  • Naming
  • Home training: greetings, respect for superiors, cleanliness, tolerance, integrity, hard work, etc.
  • Yoruba foods
  • Non-verbal communication
  • Funerals: traditional and modern methods
  • Inheritance: traditional and modern methods.


  • Traditional occupations
  • Marriage
  • Politics: family structure, age grades, chieftaincy, Obaship, etc.
  • Child care
  • Ancestors
  • Yoruba beliefs about Olodumare (God), deities/divinities, other invisible forces, etc.
  • Modern religions: Islam, Christianity, etc.
  • Economy: adverts, money lending, cooperative efforts, etc.

NB: To enhance the teaching of this language, it is recommended that schools provide audio-visual materials such as television sets, radios, tape-recorders and tapes, cameras, charts and artefacts.


1. Abiodun, Jibola: (1996) Aroko Ati Aayan, Ogbufo. Majab (Ilorin)

2. Owolabi, K: (1989) Ijinle Itupale Ede Yoruba Extension Publications  (Ibadan)

3. Bamgbose, A:  (1991) Fonoloji Ati Girama Yoruba. University Press (Ibadan)




1. Ojo, Olagoke: (2005) Ijapa Tiroko Oko Yannibo Longman (Lagos)


2. Abimbola, Wande: (2004) Awon Oju Odu University Press Mereerindinlogun (Ibadan) (ppi-xxxi; 52 – 96)


3. Ogunniran, L: (2007)   Eegun Alare Macmillan (Lagos)



4. Eso-Oluborode, Sunday: Olorunsogo Sumob Publishers (1994) (Osogbo)


5. Olayiwola, Ademola: Akowe ko wura Extension Publications (2007) (Ibadan)


6. Awe, Debo: (2004) Apoti Alakara  Elyon Pulibshers (Ilesa)


1. Adeoye, C.L.: (1979) Asa Ati Ise Yoruba University Press (Ibadan)

2. Olajubu, O. (1978) Iwe Asa Ibile Yoruba Longman (Lagos)

3. Daramola, A. ati Jeje. Asa Ati Orisa Onibon-Oje (Ibadan)



  • Bamgbose (ed): (1983)    Iwe Ede Iperi Yoruba Vol. 1  YSAN/NERDC
  • Awobuluyi (ed): (1990)    Iwe Ede Iperi Yoruba Vo. ll   UPL/NERDC
  • Egbe Akomolede ati Asa    Eko Ede Yoruba Ode Oni SSI – III Macmillan Yoruba, Naijiria: (1988)
  • Ajayi W.B.: (1989)   Egberun Ibeere Ewonidahun    Hienemann
  • Mustapha D-et al: (1983) Osupa Ede Yoruba I-III    Nelson (1987)   Iwe Eko Ede Yoruba Titun I-III UPL
  • Owolabi, O. et al:  (1984)   Ijinle Ede ati Litireso Yoruba    Evans
  • Babalola, A. et al:  (1988)   Iwe Imodotun Yoruba I-III    Longman
  • Awoyale, Y. et al:  (1984)   Eko Ede Yoruba Ode Oni JSI-III    Macmillan
  • Egbe Akomolede ati      Yoruba Gbode    Macmillan AsaYoruba, Naijiria: (1986)  
  • Odujinrin, J.S.A.:  Modern Lesson in Yoruba Part I-III     Odujinrin Publishers
  • Awobuluyi, O. (1978)  Essentials of Yoruba Grammar    UPL
  • Bamgbose, A. (1967) A short Yoruba Grammar    Heinemann
  • Akinlade, Kola: (1987) Owe Pelu Itumo    Longman
  • Fabunmi, M.A.(1969) Yoruba Idioms.  AUP
  • Delano, I.O. Owe Lesin Oro UPL
  • Koseemanii, Supo: (1987) Owe ati Asayan Oro Yoruba Vantage
  • Olopade, A: (1991) Asayan Akanlo – Ede Yoruba Gbemi Sodipo Press
  • Adewoyin, S.Y. (2006) Imo Ede, Asa ati Corpomutt Publishers Litireso Yoruba 1-III  


  • Alaba and Ogunsipe: (1982) Iwe Afinimona Lori Awon Nelson
  • Iwe Fagunwa
  • Ogunsina, Bisi: (1981) Iwe Akoyawo Alaye lori O le ku UPL
  • Egbe Akomolede ati Asa Ewi Yoruba Lakotun 1-III Evans
  • Yoruba, Naijiria: (2007)


  • Ladele, T.A.A. et al (1986) Akojopo Ijinle Asa Yoruba Macmillan
  • Adeoye, C.L.: (1985) Igbagbo ati Esin Yoruba Evans
  • Opadotun, O.: (1966) Aroko Vantage
  • Adeniji, A.A.: (1987) Ogun ni ile Yoruba Longman
  • Adeoye, C.L.: (1982) Oruko Yoruba UPL.
Share on:

I am an Enthusiastic SEO Writer engineering helpful skyscraping content on the internet. A lifelong learner who loves to read, learn and write.

Leave a Comment